There exists a potential for calcium, barium, strontium, fluoride and silica compounds to precipitate in the concentrate or brine channels of the reverse osmosis membranes. Precipitation occurs when the solubility limits of these various salts and silica is exceeded.
Water is one of the most important commodities that supports life on earth but very few understand how hard it is to get clean, potable freshwater. Water, in all its forms, covers three quarters of the Earth's surface. The water levels on Earth remain relatively the same each year. Every day, water goes through a cycle that sees it flow from land, to the seas and then evaporates into the atmosphere through the processes of evaporation and precipitation.
Topics: membrane filtration, membrane treatment system, reverse osmosis, membrane treatment, water treatment, clean drinking water, membrane plants, water recycling, water quality, water purification process, save water
Going into space takes a lot of forethought. Astronauts may seem super human, but the fact of the matter is they need the same things everyday people need. That includes water. The International Space Station is a completely closed system that needs to be able to operate without outside interference. It would be very hard to deliver necessities to the station on a regular basis, especially things that are constantly used, like water.
Topics: water treatment
Recovery is the amount of water permeated per unit time - usually in gallons per minute (gpm) and expressed as a percentage of the raw water feed flow rate. The design recovery is calculated as follows:
With growing worries about water scarcity, the need for businesses and homeowners to conserve water is becoming more and more evident. Fortunately, many of the ways that you can save water on an individual basis are free or inexpensive. Furthermore, almost all of them are relatively easy to implement. Consider the following ways to save both money and water:
In conventional construction projects there are three main parties: the water treatment plant owner, the engineer, and the contractor. In specialized process projects a system supplier with particular expertise on the process is also usually involved. This party is also called an Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM). For membrane treatment projects this entity is commonly called the Reverse Osmosis Equipment Manufacturer (ROEM) or the Membrane System Supplier (MSS). The ROEM or MSS may have a separate contract with the water treatment plant owner, or they may be a subcontractor to either the engineer or the main general contractor.