Some raw feed waters contain suspended particulate material. This material is commonly sand, iron oxides, clay or elemental sulfur. Introduction of such materials into the membrane system can cause the development of excessive system differential pressure (dP), or even complete blockage of the brine channels with the resultant reduction of permeate flow. It can also cause physical damage to the membranes themselves. This usually results in a decrease of permeate quality and reduction of membrane life. Cartridge filtration is normally a simple and cost-effective way to reduce the amount of particulate matter reaching the membrane surface.
Membrane filtration can be explained as a method of allowing certain materials to permeate a surface while blocking others. For water, this means allowing clean water to flow through the membrane while eliminating sediments and other materials or pathogens. Membrane filtration is a multiple-step process which is considered to be one of the most cost-effective water treatments available.
The following is a brief narrative describing the intended control strategy between each a Reverse Osmosis (RO) train and the water treatment plant SCADA system.
It describes the control system we will supply and outlines the basic operation of a Reverse Osmosis skid and the required handshaking with the water treatment plant SCADA system. This narrative in no way encompasses all of the responsibilities of the water plant SCADA as we are not familiar with all of the requirements of the end user.
Membrane systems operating at 82% recovery will convert 82% of the total raw water input into treated permeate, with the remaining 18% being sent to waste as concentrate (or reject). The recovery rate is monitored using flow meters installed in the permeate and concentrate piping.
During normal operation of an R/O water treatment system, the membrane elements will often suffer a reduction in performance due to the accumulation of small particles, colloids, microorganisms, or precipitated salts collecting on the membrane surface.
Membrane water treatment is a process that removes unwanted constituents from water. A membrane is a barrier that allows certain substances to pass through while blocking others. Water treatment facilities use various types of membranes and processes to clean surface water, groundwater, and wastewater to produce water for industry and for drinking.